Thomas Hardjono

I'm with MIT Connection Science. Here is a link to our recent events in Davos. Here is a link to our new book from MIT press on building the future digital economy.

Office: E17-357
Phone: +1 (617) 715-2451
Email: hardjono [at]


Short Bio: Dr Thomas Hardjono is the CTO of Connection Science & Engineering at MIT in Cambridge, MA. USA. He is an early pioneer in the field of digital identities and trusted hardware, and instrumental in the development and broad adoption of the MIT Kerberos authentication protocol. His activities include leading standard development efforts in several industry forums, including the IETF, the IEEE, Trusted Computing Group, Confidential Computing Alliance and others. He has published over 70 technical conference/journal papers, several books and over 30 patents. He is currently involved in several startups around the MIT community. His current area of interest is Web3 Digital Assets, with focus on the interoperability of asset networks and survivability of these networks against cybersecurity attacks.


New Books:


Gateways for Blockchain Interoperability

IETF Secure Asset Transfer Protocol (SATP) (IETF link)

Some Recent Papers:​

Data Cooperatives for Identity Attestations (PDF)

Secure Community Transformers: Private Pooled Data for LLMs (PDF).

Legal Ramifications of Digital Tokenization (PDF).

Do You Need a Distributed Ledger Technology Interoperability Solution? ACM Distributed Ledger Technologies: Research and Practice, March 2023, Vol 2/No1.

Blockchain Intra-operability and Inter-Operability, in Innovative Technilogy at the Interface of Finance & Operations (eds. Babich, Birge & Hilary), Springer 2022 (link).

Blockchain Interoperability - Hermes: Fault-tolerant middleware for blockchain interoperability, R. Belchior, A.Vasconcelos, M. Correia & T. Hardjono, Journal of Future Generation Computer Systems Vol. 129, April 2022, Pages 236-251 (ScienceDirect link)

A Flat-Fee Blockchain based on the Classic ISP Model, January 2022 (FinTech Journal)

The Problem of Hybrid-NFTs: Perpetual Syncronization between Real-World Assets and their On-Chain Token Representations, November 2021 (PDF)

Time for a New Digital Bretton Woods (Barron's, June 2021)

Future Directions for Regulated Private Wallets and VASP Trust Infrastructures, IEEE ICBC2021 (Short PDF; Long PDF)

Attestations of Blockchain Nodes, WWW Journal 2021 (PDF)

Blockchain Gateways, Bridges and Delegated Hash-Locks, Feb 2021 (PDF)

A Contract Service Provider Model for Virtual Assets, P2P Financial Systems International Workshop, December 2020. FinTech Journal (2022) (PDF)

Travel Rule Information Sharing Architecture for Virtual Asset Service Providers (TRISA), v7 June 2020 (PDF)

Wallet Attestations for Virtual Asset Service Providers and Crypto-Assets Insurance. May 2020 (PDF).

Proposal for a Comprehensive Crypto Asset Taxonomy, 2020 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology (CVCBT), Switzerland, May 2020. (PDF)

Claims-Exchange Networks for Virtual Asset Service Providers, IEEE 2nd Intl Conferece on Blockchain & Cryptocurrency (ICBC2020), May 2020 (PDF).

Public Key Management Framework for Virtual Assets and Virtual Asset Service Providers (VASP), Journal of FinTech (2020) (PDF)(Journal)

Compliant Solutions for VASPs, May 2019, presentation to the FATF Private Sector Consultative Forum (PSCF) 2019, Vienna (6 May 2019) (PDF).

Interoperability Architecture for Blockchain Systems, IEEE Transactions on Eng. Mgmt Special Issue on Blockchain Ecosystem 2019 (PDF).

Digital Trade Coin: Towards a More Stable Digital Currency, Journal of the Royal Society Open Science (RSOS), July 2018 (PDF).

Narrow Banks and Fiat Backed Digital Coins, Capco Institute Journal, April 2018. (PDF)

Open Algorithms as Smart Contracts: Enabling Future Data Markets using Blockchain Technology, ICIS 2017, Seoul (PDF).

Congressional Blockchain Roundtable Report: The Impact of Blockchain for Government (PDF).

Thomas Hardjono and Alex Pentland, "On Privacy-Preserving Identity within Future Blockchain Systems", W3C Workshop on Distributed Ledgers on the Web, June 2016.



DLT for Industrial and Automotive Cybersecurity, in Blockchains: Empowering Technologies and Industrial Applications (IEEE Series on Digital & Mobile Communication), 2022.

Secure and secret Cooperation in Robot Swarms, July 2021 (PDF)

Decentralized TCB for Blockchain Infrastructure Security, Frontiers in Blockchain Journal, December 2019 (PDF).

Decentralized Service Architecture of OAuth2.0 using Smart Contracts, Feb 2017 (IETF Draft).

IoT device commisioning using blockchains, Proceedings of ACM IoT Privacy, Trust & Security, 2016 (PDF).

Eduardo Castelló Ferrer, Ognjen (Oggi) Rudovic, Thomas Hardjono, Alexander ('Sandy') Pentland, RoboChain: A Secure Data-Sharing Framework for Human-Robot Interaction, (PDF).

Thomas Hardjono, Patrick Deegan, John Henry Clippinger, Social Uses Cases for the ID3 Mustard Seed Platform, IEEE Technology & Society, September 2014. (PDF)

Thomas Hardjono, Patrick Deegan, John Henry Clippinger, On the Design of Trustworthy Compute Frameworks for Self-Organizing Digital Institutions, 16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction HCI2014, June 2014.

J. Zic and T. Hardjono, Towards a cloud-based integrity measurement service, Journal of Cloud Computing: Advances, Systems and Applications 2013, 2:4 (Springer) doi:10.1186/2192-113X-2-4. (PDF)

Infrastructure for Trusted Computing, ACSAC 2004 (PDF Slides)

Secure Group Communications for Wireless Networks, IEEE MILCOM 2001 (PDF)

T. Hardjono and Gene Tsudik, IP Multicast Security: Issues and Directions, Tech. Rep., Annales de Telecom, July-August, 1999. (PDF)

Secure & Scalable Inter-Domain Group Key Management for N-to-N Multicast, IEEE ICPADS (PDF)


Open Music and Smart Contracts:

Towards an Open and Scalable Music Metadata Layer (PDF)

Billboard Article: Why Success of the Music Modernization Act Depends on Open Standards.

MIT/Berklee Open Music and Raidar.

Blockchains and Crypto Music (MIT, May 2019)


Digital Identity, Data Privacy and User-Centric Consent

Decentralized Data Infrastructures for the Data-Driven Society, May 2021 (IETF DIN RG - Decentralized Internet Infrastructure).

Federated Authorization over Access to Personal Data for Decentralized Identity Management, IEEE Communications Magazine special issue: The Dawn of the Internet Identity Layer and the Role of Decentralized Identity, December 2019 (PDF).

Data Cooperatives: Towards a Foundation for Decentralized Personal Data Management (PDF)

WSJ Article (April 2018): Digital Identity is Broken. (PDF)

Identity/Blockchain Analysis Report 2018 (Kantara Initiative)

Open Algorithms for Identity Federation, IEEE Future of Information & Communications Conference 2018 (PDF).

Owner-Centric Identity Management  (User Managed Access (UMA) Core Specification)

Verifiable Anonymous Identities and Access Control in Permissioned Blockchains (2015 draft, PDF)


Other Projects

IoT Secure Key Management:  Simplified Key Management Protocol for IoT devices (IETF).

Security Assertions Markup Language (SAML), SAML2.0 & SAML2.1, OASIS Security Services TC.

Personal Data Stores and Safe-Answers (MIT OpenPDS 2.0)

Hardware-rooted Identity and Trusted Computing (Trusted Computing Group - Infrastructure WG)

Group-Key Management (RFC3547) and IP Multicast (RFC3740)

Thomas Hardjono, "Owner-Centric Access Management for IoT Data", in New Solutions for Cybersecurity, eds. Shrobe, Shrier & Pentland, MIT Press, 2018.

D. Greenwood, A. Stopczynski, B. Sweatt, T. Hardjono, A. Pentland, "The New Deal on Data: A Framework for Institutional Controls", in Lane et al. (ed), Privacy, Big Data and the Public Good, Oxford University Press, 2014.



T. Hardjono and L. Dondeti, Security in WLANs and WMANs, Artech-House, London. 2005.

T. Hardjono and L. Dondeti, Multicast and Group Communications, Artech-House, London, 2003.

J. Pieprzyk, T. Hardjono and J. Seberry, Fundamentals of Computer Security, Springer-Verlag. Berlin. 2002.



MIT Courses I currently help teach: 15.376/MAS.664  Media Ventures ~ Media Lab Entrepreneurship & Digital Innovations